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анилин , Aniline is an organic chemical compound, specifically a primary aromatic amine. It consists of a benzene ring attached to an amino group. Aniline is oily and, although colorless, it can be slowly oxidized and resinified in air to form impurities which can give it a red-brown tint. Its boiling point is 184 degree centigrade and its melting point is -6 degree centegrade. It is a liquid at room temperature. Like most volatile amines, it possesses a somewhat unpleasant odour of rotten fish, and also has a burning aromatic taste; it is a highly acrid poison. It ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame. Aniline reacts with strong acids to form salts containing the anilinium (or phenylammonium) ion (C6H5-NH3+), and reacts with acyl halides (such as acetyl chloride (ethanoyl chloride), CH3COCl) to form amides. The amides formed from aniline are sometimes called anilides, for example CH3-CO-NH-C6H5 is acetanilide, for which the modern name is N-phenyl ethanamide. Like phenols, aniline derivatives are highly reactive in electrophilic substitution reactions. For example, sulfonation of aniline produces sulfanilic acid, which can be converted to sulfanilamide. Sulfanilamide is one of the sulfa drugs which were widely used as antibacterial in the early 20th century. Aniline was first isolated from the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826 by Otto Unverdorben. In 1834, Friedrich Runge isolated from coal tar a substance which produced a beautiful blue color on treatment with chloride of lime; this he named kyanol or cyanol. In 1841, C. J. Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from the Sanskrit, dark-blue.

Chemical Names: ANILINE; Benzenamine; Phenylamine; Aminobenzene; 62-53-3; minophen

Molecular Formula: C6H7N or C6H5NH2

Molecular Weight: 93.129 g/mol

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